Matera – Les Sassi, И-Сасси-ди-Матера, Los Sassi y el conjunto de iglesias rupestres – UNESCO World Heritage Centre

Les Sassi et le parc des églises rupestres de Matera

Situé dans la région du Basilicate, c’est l’exemple le plus remarquable et le plus complet d’un ensemble d’habitations troglodytiques de la région méditerranéenne, parfaitement adapté à son terrain et à son écosystème. La première zone habitée remonte au paléolithique et les habitations postérieures illustrent un certain nombre d’étapes importantes de l’histoire humaine.

«И-Сасси-ди-Матера» – старые районы города Матера 

В масштабах всего Средиземноморья – это самый выдающийся по степени сохранности пример пещерного поселения, прекрасно приспособленного к специфике местного ландшафта. Первые следы обитания человека на этом месте относятся к палеолиту, тогда как более поздние поселения иллюстрируют другие важные этапы в истории развития человека. Город Матера находится в южной области Базиликата.

Italy Matera from Places We Go on Vimeo.

Los Sassi y el conjunto de iglesias rupestres de Matera

Situado en la región de Basilicata, este sitio posee el más extraordinario y mejor conservado conjunto de viviendas trogloditas de la cuenca del Mediterráneo, perfectamente adaptadas a la morfología del terreno y el ecosistema de la zona. Los sucesivos asentamientos del hombre en este sitio, desde los tiempos del Paleolítico, ilustran toda una serie de etapas importantes de la historia de la humanidad.

Matera 09 from Jack on Vimeo.

Sassi di Matera costituiscono il centro storico della città di Matera. Il Sasso “Caveoso” ed il Sasso “Barisano”, insieme al rione “Civita”, formano un complesso nucleo urbano.

Matera from Vadócz Péter on Vimeo.

I Sassi di Matera sono stati iscritti nella lista dei patrimoni dell’umanità dell’UNESCO nel 1993. Sono stati il primo sito iscritto dell’Italia meridionale. L’iscrizione è stata motivata dal fatto che essi rappresentano un ecosistema urbano straordinario, capace di perpetuare dal più lontano passato preistorico i modi di abitare delle caverne fino alla modernità. I Sassi di Matera costituiscono un esempio eccezionale di accurata utilizzazione nel tempo delle risorse della natura: acqua, suolo, energia.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC

The Sassi and the Park of the Rupestrian Churches of Matera – UNESCO World Heritage Centre

This is the most outstanding, intact example of a troglodyte settlement in the Mediterranean region, perfectly adapted to its terrain and ecosystem. The first inhabited zone dates from the Palaeolithic, while later settlements illustrate a number of significant stages in human history. Matera is in the southern region of Basilicata.

The Sassi of Matera and their park are an outstanding example of a rock-cut settlement, adapted perfectly to its geomorphological setting and its ecosystem and exhibiting continuity over more than two millennia. They represent an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement and land use showing the evolution of a culture that has maintained over time a harmonious relationship with its natural environment.

Italy Matera from Places We Go on Vimeo.

The Matera region has been inhabited by man since the Palaeolithic period. Permanent defended village settlements grew up after the last Ice Age, based on agriculture. Deforestation of the area led to serious erosion and created problems of water management. The gradual invasion of fields by garrigue and maquis led to a change from agriculture to pastoral transhumance. Matera’s development was due to its geological setting. A belt of soft tufa is located between 350 m and 400 m above the valley bed, and this also contains two natural depressions (grabialioni ); in consequence, it was here that the settlement grew up. The clay plateau above was reserved for agriculture and pastoralism.

Matera 09 from Jack on Vimeo.

The advent of better tools with the Metal Ages made it easier to dig into the soft calcareous tufa rocks exposed in the gravine (gorges or canyons) and there is evidence from the Bronze Age of the creation of underground cisterns and tombs, and in particular of underground dwellings opening out of a central space (jazzi ). The excavated tufa blocks were used for the construction of walls and towers. This process was easiest on the sides of ravines, where the softer strata of tufa were exposed. Greek colonization led to the introduction of higher technology and political structures, under the influence of the Pythagorean School. The earlier dispersed settlements coalesced into urban centres of government, under their own kings (i Re Pastori), leading eventually to the creation of true towns. The harsh landscape resulted in the growth of a spirit of sturdy independence which was resistant to successive waves of invaders after the Byzantine period. The area was also very attractive to monastic and utopian communities.

Matera from Vadócz Péter on Vimeo.

This structure remained intact until the 18th century. It was the expansion and interventions of the 19th and 20th centuries that rejected the ancient principle of land management based on water supply and drainage and spread to the clays of the plateau above.

The earliest house form was a simple cave in the tufa with a closing wall formed from the excavated blocks. This developed into a vaulted room (lamione ) built out into the open space, and was then available for considerable adaptation and extension. Groups of dwellings round a common courtyard evolved into the social structure of the vicinato, with shared facilities such as a cistern. In between the two sassi was established the fortified centre of the town (cività ), within which the cathedral was sited. Workshops and granaries were set up outside the cività, which was connected with the sassi by narrow lanes and steps. The water supply was highly organized, being collected on the plateau above and brought down by gravity for distribution to the community. As the town grew, more houses were excavated and built, climbing the hillside; the roofs of some houses often acted as streets for the houses above them. The houses became more grandiose, and terraces were built out in the Renaissance period for gardens.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC

Costiera Amalfitana – UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Côte amalfitaine, Костьера-Амальфиана – Амальфийское побережье, Costa Amalfitana

Côte amalfitaine

La bande littorale d’Amalfi est d’une grande beauté naturelle. Elle a été intensivement peuplée depuis le début du Moyen Âge. Elle comporte un certain nombre de villes telles qu’Amalfi et Ravello qui abritent des œuvres architecturales et artistiques particulièrement remarquables. Ses zones rurales témoignent de la faculté d’adaptation de ses habitants qui ont su tirer parti de la diversité du terrain pour le cultiver, depuis les vignobles et les vergers en terrasses sur les pentes basses, jusqu’aux grands pâturages des hautes terres.

Positano

Positano

Костьера-Амальфиана – Амальфийское побережье 

Амальфийское побережье, район удивительной красоты и природного разнообразия, был плотно заселен еще в раннем средневековье. Здесь расположено много городов, таких как Амальфи и Равелло, в которых имеются архитектурные и художественные произведения большого значения. Сельская местность демонстрирует изобретательность жителей в приемах землепользования, приспособленных к особенностям ландшафтов – это террасированные виноградники и сады на нижних частях склонов, и обширные пастбища на более возвышенных участках.

Costa Amalfitana

La faja litoral amalfitana es de una gran belleza y posee una rica biodiversidad natural. Intensamente poblada desde principios de la Edad Media, esta región costera comprende ciudades como Amalfi y Ravello, que albergan obras arquitectónicas y artísticas muy notables. El paisaje rural atestigua la capacidad de adaptación de los habitantes, que han sabido aprovechar la diversidad del terreno cultivando viñedos y huertos en terrazas construidas en las laderas bajas y conservando las tierras altas para vastos pastizales.

Costiera Amalfitana
La fascia costiera di Amalfi è di grande bellezza ed è ricca di biodiversità naturale. Densamente popolata dal Medioevo, questa regione costiera comprende città come Amalfi e Ravello, da un punto di vista architettonico e delle opere artistiche molto rilevanti. Il paesaggio rurale, testimonia la resilienza delle persone, che hanno approfittato della terra coltivando vigneti e frutteti su terrazze costruite sui pendii e praterie dei vasti altopiani.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC

Compass for Tourists – Italian Arts guide: exhibits around the World

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Art Exhibition Featuring Italian Photorealists STATE OF THE ARTS GALLERY 36 Pottinger Street, Central, Hong Kong In the framework of the “Italy 2012: Quality & Lifestyle” festival, “Stillness” will feature some of the most talented Italian photorealists’ artworks. Thanks to …Continua a leggere →

RASSEGNA D’ARTE ITALIANA

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La Galleria Web Art di Treviso e la Galleria “Forme d’Arte” Venezia in collaborazione con l’Associazione Culturale “TANTARTE” di Treviso (organizzatore dell’evento) e con la galleria “FYR” Firenze e Shanghai, come ha già fatto nel 2005 con la mostra Shapes … Continua a leggere →

Venetian feelings

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23-30 agosto 2012 Venetian feelings Italian contemporary art Presso FYR GALLERY Art Bund 111, Shanghai – Cina In collaborazione con: FYR Gallery (Firenze – Shanghai), Galleria Forme d’Arte (Venezia) e Galleria Web Art (Treviso)

Renaissance in Florence: Masterpieces and Protagonists

untill 04/30 2013

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Date:July 6, 2012 – April 30, 2013 Venue:Gallery N16 The cultural ministers of China and Italy signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Promoting Cooperation on Cultural Heritage Protection in Rome in October 2010, in which an important issue is to … Continua a leggere →

 

GREECE / GRECIA

Il dono di Dioniso.

Mitologia del vino nell’Italia centrale (Molise) e nella Grecia del Nord (Macedonia)

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La Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Molise, in stretta collaborazione con l’Istituto italiano di Cultura di Salonicco e l’Ambasciata d’Italia in Grecia, il Museo Archeologico di Salonicco e la Regione Molise, presenta a Salonicco nella prestigiosa sede del Museo …Continua a leggere →

 

IRELAND / IRLANDA

PhotoIreland Festival 2012:

Italian Identity Exhibition – 3rd – 31st July

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Opening: 3rd July at 6pm | Migrations | Italian Institute of Culture, Dublin 2. A visual art exhibition of portraits that reflect the diversity of Italian identity in contemporary Ireland. Curated by Angela Tangianu, Director of the Italian Institute of … Continua a leggere →

UNITED KINGDOM/REGNO UNITO

Bruno Munari: My Futurist Past

Bruno Munari in his studio, 1949

Bruno Munari: My Futurist Past 19 September – 23 December 2012 Bruno Munari (1907-1998) played a pioneering role in the evolution of twentieth-century art and design, his work exerting an influence that stretched far beyond the borders of Italy. Munari … Continua a leggere→

In Astratto – Abstraction in Italy 1930-1980

Images, clockwise from above: Virginio (Gino) Ghiringhelli, Composition No. 5, 1934, Museo d’Arte Contemporanea di Villa Croce, Genoa (detail); Franco Grignani, Structural, 1965, Museo d’Arte Contemporanea di Villa Croce, Genoa; Mauro Reggiani, Composition No. 5, 1952, CAMeC – Centro Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, La Spezia; Raccolta Premio del Golfo; Agostino Bonalumi, White, 1967, Museo d’Arte Contemporanea di Villa Croce, Genoa.

In Astratto explores fifty years of innovation in Italian abstraction, and presents a comprehensive survey of the myriad approaches to the subject that emerged during the key period from 1930 to 1980. Abstraction developed in Italy out of the pioneering experiments … Continua a leggere →

 

Venus and Adonis Unveiled – Titian

10 july 2012 – 13 january 2013

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This display will celebrate the conservation of Venus and Adonis, a painting produced by Titian’s workshop after the celebrated prototype painted by Titian for Philip II, King of Spain in 1554. The painting has been in storage since the early … Continua a leggere →

Mantegna to Matisse: Master Drawings from the Courtauld Gallery

October 2, 2012, through January 27, 2013

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In keeping with its tradition of exhibiting masterworks from collections outside of New York, the Frick will present fifty-eight drawings from The Courtauld Gallery, London. This exhibition marks the first time that so many of the principal drawings in The … Continua a leggere →

 

Tiziano in Gran Bretagna

Fino al 19 agosto 2012 alla National Gallery, è possibile vedere il primo capolavoro del Tiziano: La fuga in Egitto. L’opera, che si ritiene essere uno dei suoi primi dipinti, è un lavoro ambizioso e innovativo. La scelta del soggetto ha permesso a Tiziano di mostrare le sue abilità nella … Continua a leggere →

 

UNITED STATES of AMERICA / U.S.A.

 

Antico: The Golden Age of Renaissance Bronzes

May 1, 2012, through July 29, 2012

Pier Jacopo Alari de Bonacolsi, called Antico (c. 1460–1528), Apollo Belvedere, c. 1490, copper with partial fire gilding and silvering; base of bronze, 16 1/4 inches without base, Liebieghaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt

The sculptor Pier Jacopo Alari de Bonacolsi (c. 1455–1528) acquired the nickname Antico (the antique one) for his knowledge of ancient art. Born in or near Mantua, he probably trained as a goldsmith. In his youth Antico traveled to Rome, … Continua a leggere →

 

The Classical Body

Schiaparelli e Prada: Conversazioni Impossibili, esplora le affinità sorprendenti tra Elsa Schiaparelli e Miuccia Prada, due stiliste italiane di epoche diverse. Ispirato da Miguel Covarrubias di “Interviste impossibili” per Vanity Fair nel 1930, la mostra presenta diverse conversazioni tra queste … Continua a leggere →

SLOVAKIA / SLOVACCHIA

Mec-art, retrospettiva su Gianni Bertini a Zilina

Mec-art retrospective

Il 7 giugno si è aperta presso la Galleria Civica di Zilina (Slovacchia) la retrospettiva su Gianni Bertini, organizzata dall’Istituto Italiano di Cultura di Bratislava, in occasione della ricorrenza dei 90 anni della nascita di Bertini e dei 40 anni … Continua a leggere →

 

POLAND / POLONIA

Costiera Amalfitana – UNESCO World Heritage Centre

The Amalfi coast is an area of great physical beauty and natural diversity. It has been intensively settled by human communities since the early Middle Ages. There are a number of towns such as Amalfi and Ravello with architectural and artistic works of great significance. The rural areas show the versatility of the inhabitants in adapting their use of the land to the diverse nature of the terrain, which ranges from terraced vineyards and orchards on the lower slopes to wide upland pastures.

Positano

Positano

The Committee decided to inscribe this site on the basis of criteria (ii), (iv) and (v), considering that the Costiera Amalfitana is an outstanding example of a Mediterranean landscape, with exceptional cultural and natural scenic values resulting from its dramatic topography and historical evolution.

Costiera Amalfitana is an outstanding example of a Mediterranean landscape, with exceptional cultural and natural scenic values resulting from its dramatic topography and historical evolution. The area covers 11,231 ha in 15 [16?]communes in the Province of Salerno. Its natural boundary is the southern slope of the peninsula formed by the Lattari hills which, stretching from the Picentini hills to the Tyrrhenian Sea, separate the Gulf of Naples from the Gulf of Salerno. It consists of four main stretches of coast (Amalfi, Atrani, Reginna Maior, Reginna Minor) with some minor ones (Positano, Praiano, Certaria, Hercle), with the mountain villages of Scala, Tramonti and Ravello and hamlets of Conca and Furore behind and above them.

Palaeolithic and Mesolithic materials have been found at Positano, and the area was favoured by the Romans, judging from the villas of Positano, Minori and Gallo Lungo. However, it was not intensively settled until the early Middle Ages, when the Gothic War made it a place of refuge. Amalfi was founded in the 4th century AD. A new Roman colony in nearby Lucania came under barbarian attack and the inhabitants moved to the fertile and well-watered hilly area around modern Scala. In the first written reference to Amalfi (596) it was already a fortified town and the seat of a bishopric. It resisted Lombard attacks until 838, when it was conquered and looted by Sicardo. However, after his death the following year the town declared its independence. The new republic was governed by a ruler whose title had become Doge by 958. This political autonomy enabled Amalfi to become a maritime trading power between the early 9th and late 11th centuries, when the sea power of Byzantium was in decline and a free market developed. Amalfi had a near-monopoly of trade in the Tyrrhenian Sea, with vast networks of links, selling Italian products (wood, iron, weapons, wine, fruit) in eastern markets and buying in return spices, perfumes, pearls, jewels, textiles and carpets to sell in the West. The layout of the settlements showed eastern influence: the closely spaced houses climbing up the steep hillsides, connected by a maze of alleys and stairs, are reminiscent of the souks of the Levant. A distinctive Arab-Sicilian architecture originated and developed in Amalfi.

With the eclipse of the mercantile importance of Amalfi by Genoa, Venice and, above all, Pisa, and its conquest by Spain, it fell into an uninterrupted decline. The only significant change to the landscape was the reinforcement of the system of watchtowers along the coast, to give warning and protection against Turkish attacks. The towns and villages of Costiera Amalfitana are characterized by their architectural monuments, such as the Torre Saracena at Cetara, the Romanesque Cathedral of Amalfi and its ‘Cloister of Paradise’, with their strong oriental influences, the Church of San Salvatore de’ Bireto at Atrani, where the Dogi of Amalfi were elected, and Ravello with its fine cathedral and the superb Villa Rufolo.

Inland the steep slopes rising from the coast are covered with terraces, revetted with drystone walling and used for the cultivation of citrus and other fruits, olives, vines and vegetables of all kinds. Further inland the hillsides are given over to dairy farming, whose roots are ancient in the area, based on sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo. In some parts of the Costiera the natural landscape survives intact, with little, if any, human intervention. It supports the traditional Mediterranean flora of myrtle, lentisk, broom, euphorbia, etc. Elsewhere there are stands of trees such as holm oak, alder, beech and chestnut. Other biotopes shelter pantropical ferns, butterwort, dwarf palms and endemic carnivorous species. The Costiera is also rich in wildlife. The higher mountain areas are noteworthy for the characteristic mule tracks (mulattiere ). There are many small streams which in places drop over impressive waterfalls. There is an immense diversity of landscapes, ranging from the coastal settlements through the intensively cultivated lower slopes and large areas of open pastoral land to the dramatic high mountains. In addition, there are ‘micro-landscapes’ of great scientific interest resulting from topographical and climatic variations, and striking natural formations in the limestone karst at both sea level and above.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC

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